About a hundred years ago, the Iranian society was introduced to a new medium which soon supplanted and nearly replaced pulpit and poetry as the means of shaping and influencing public opinion. In the short-lived Iranian Age of Enlightenment (1890's-1920's) a new breed of intellectuals combined political activity with journalistic vocation and became the Iranian counterparts of the illustrious French philosophes of the 18th century. As journalist-political activist-intellectual, these leaders of the Iranian Constitutional Movement set a powerful precedent.
Football (soccer) was introduced to Iran in the first decade of the twentieth century by British residents of the country including diplomats, employees of the oil industry, officers of the South Persia Rifles and by Christian missionaries who included it in their schools' physical education curriculum. During the reign of Reza Shah, the government encouraged football and other team sports, believing that their popularization would favor the emergence of a spirit of cooperation among Iranians.
Iran Possesses 490 different species of birds. Out of this rich and diverse bird fauna, it is only the male nightingale that has become a powerful metaphor not only for Persian poets but also for the country itself. Iran is known as the “Land of the Rose and the Nightingale.”
Conventional historiography has placed the beginning the burgeoning women’s liberation movement in Iran as an derivative of the 1905-11 Constitutional revolutionary period. This reductionist treatment has coincided with a dearth of scholarship on earlier, indigenous women’s movements.
Acknowledging the importance of speaking, of witnessing, of claiming an independent voice and vision, Simin Behbahani is now at the height of her powers and popularity. For well over half a century, Behbahani has been the voice of freedom and moderation rising against repression and discrimination in Iran. Although she has avoided involvement in party politics, from the beginning of her career this pioneering poet has condemned any form of violence. Concern for social justice has been the strongest drive in her poetry.
Islamic Republic of Iran Islamic Penal Code: Excerpts Relating to Women
Source: Afkhami, Mahnaz and Erika Friedl, eds. In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Post-Revolutionary Iran. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1994.
Constitution and Its Supplement
The fundamental Law of Persia promulgated in the reign of the late Muzaffaru’d-Din Shah and ratified by him on Dhu’l-Qa’da 14, A.H. 1324 (December 30, 1906).
In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving